Bioactive Compounds of Garlic

Bioactive Compounds of Garlic

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Garlic Chemistry

Bioactive Compounds of Garlic


Garlic is considered as a functional spice because of its diverse array of nutritional constituents, phytochemicals, and fiber.

It contains high levels of potassium, phosphorus zinc, and sulfur, moderate levels of selenium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, iron, and low levels of sodium, vitamin A and C and B-complex, 17 amino acids with eight main amino acids, also polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins, saponins, polysaccharides, sulfur-containing compounds, and enzymes.

Generally, bioactive compounds are present in intact garlic, but, after chopping or crushing, a higher number of compounds, such as allicin, DAS, DADS, dithiins, and ajoene have been found after different types of chemical reactions.

This article mainly discusses the Bioactive Compounds of Garlic.

Organosulfur compounds from garlic

Non-sulfur garlic phytochemicals


Organosulfur compounds from garlic

Two classes of organosulfur compounds are found in whole garlic cloves: L-cysteine sulfoxides and γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine peptides.

L-Cysteine sulfoxides

S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin) accounts for approximately 80% of cysteine sulfoxides in garlic. When raw garlic cloves are crushed, chopped, or chewed, an enzyme known as alliinase is released. Alliinase catalyzes the formation of sulfenic acids from L-cysteine sulfoxides. Sulfenic acids spontaneously react with each other to form unstable compounds called thiosulfinates. In the case of alliin, the resulting sulfenic acids react with each other to form a thiosulfinate known as allicin (half-life in crushed garlic at 23°C is 2.5 days). The formation of thiosulfinates is very rapid and has been found to be complete within 10 to 60 seconds of crushing garlic. Allicin breaks down in vitro to form a variety of fat-soluble organosulfur compounds, including diallyl trisulfide (DATS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), and diallyl sulfide (DAS), or in the presence of oil or organic solvents, ajoene and vinyldithiins. In vivo, allicin can react with glutathione and L-cysteine to produce S-allylmercaptoglutathione (SAMG) and S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC), respectively.

γ-Glutamyl-L-cysteine peptides                                

Crushing garlic does not change its γ-glutamyl-L-cysteine peptide content. γ-Glutamyl-L-cysteine peptides include an array of water-soluble dipeptides, including γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine, γ-glutamylmethylcysteine, and γ-glutamylpropylcysteine. Water-soluble organosulfur compounds, such as S-allylcysteine and SAMC, are formed from γ-glutamyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine during long-term incubation of crushed garlic in aqueous solutions, as in the manufacture of aged garlic extracts.


Non-sulfur garlic phytochemicals

Although little is known about their bioavailability and biological activities, non-sulfur garlic phytochemicals, including flavonoids, steroid saponins, organoselenium compounds, and allixin, likely work in synergy with organosulfur compounds.


Organosulfur alliin in garlic-allicin



Garlife™ ingredients.

Garlife™ GE-Garlic Extract, standardized by allicin, alliin

Garlife™ BG-Black Garlic Extract, standardized by SAC (S-Allyl-L-Cysteine)

Garlife™ AG-Aged Garlic Extract, standardized by SAC (S-Allyl-L-Cysteine)

Garlife™ GO-Garlic Oil, standardized by allicin.

Garlife™ Alipure- Garlic Extract 98% Alliin

Garlife™ AlIinase- Alliinase 1000U/g; 5000U/g.

Garlife™ Caps- OEM bulk capsules/tablets of garlic extract.

Redlife™ MK-Red yeast rice extract, standardized by monacolin-K


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